Chris Pritsos


Photo of Chris Pritsos

Professor

Director of Nv Ag Experiment Station
Department of CABNR/NAES - Administration
University of Nevada/Mail Stop 221
1664 North Virginia Street
Reno,  Nevada   89557

Office: (775) 784-1601
Lab: 327-5096

Fax: 784-6449

Email: pritsos@cabnr.unr.edu
Building: Max Fleischmann Agriculture,  Office 210

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EDUCATION
A.B.Occidental College, 1975
Ph.D. University of Nevada, 1982

ACADEMIC & RESEARCH INTEREST

Mechanisms And Mitigation Effects Of Insecticides On Avian Species

Insecticides are commonly used worldwide, as well as Nevada, as a means of controlling insects which damage our crops and gardens and spread disease. Scientists are also always looking for more effective compounds. A concern with all insecticides is their specificity. Most insecticides are highly toxic to insects but also have some toxicity towards other species. The goal is to develop insecticides which are highly toxic to the desired target species and not very toxic to non-target species. One of the newest groups of insecticides are the neonicotinoids. They attack the nervous system of insects but are much less able to attack the nervous system of mammals.

These insecticides have become the most widely used in the world. Because of their versatility in application, they are used in a variety of farmland crops such as cereal crops, canola, potatoes and horticulture vegetable crops, fruits and vineyards. Neonicotinoids are also sold as garden sprays for flowers and vegetables. Recent studies however have shown that these compounds can be toxic to some non-target organisms, including honey bees and birds. Honey bee colony collapse has been attributed to the use of these compounds which appears to cause the bees to become disoriented. Migratory birds routinely stop in fields, pastures and waterways to re-fuel and rest before continuing on to their breeding or wintering grounds. Exposure to neonicotinoid contaminated food or water at these sites could have deleterious effects ranging from acute to non-acute toxicities including mortality, reproductive and flight navigation effects (similar to the honey bee phenomenon).

Migratory birds are protected by international treaty. Non-migratory birds such as the sage grouse, could also be effected by exposure to these compounds from the fields near their leks.

There have been very few studies to date which have looked at the effects of low-dose neonicotinoid exposure to avian species. There have been no studies which have examined the potential effect of neonicotinoid exposure on avian flight and bird migration.

Pritsos laboratory has developed a unique avian model capable of testing the effects of environmental exposures on avian flight and reproduction. This model can be used to mimic migratory flight behavior. We therefore propose to test the effects of two widely used neonicotinoid insecticides (Imidacloprid and Clothianidin) on flight and reproduction using our homing pigeon avian model. Exposed adults will be tested for reproductive success at environmentally relevant dosages and their offspring monitored for developmental behavior. Using GPS technology, exposed adults are tested for effects on flight. The Team also conducts studies to determine the ½ life of these compounds in the blood of these birds to determine how long it stays in their systems. This research provides important data about the safety of these insecticides to birds and may provide insights on their effects on honey bees.

 

 

REPRESENTATIVE PUBLICATIONS

Journals
Pritsos, C., Perez, C. R., Moye, J. K. 2014, Estimating the Surface Area of Birds: Using the Homing Pigeon (Columba livia) as a Model., Biology Open, 3(6), 486-488.
Muthumalage, T., Pritsos, C. (2014). 2014, The Impact of Commonly Used Air Filters in Eliminating the Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Constituents., Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, Royal Society of Chemistry.
York, N. L., Pritsos, C., Gutierrea, A. P. 2011, Legislatures' Beliefs on Tobacco Control Policies in Nevada, J. Community Health, 37, 89-95
Moye, J., Pritsos, C. 2010, Effects of Chlorpyrifos and Aldicarb on Flight Activity and Related Cholinesterase Inhibition in Homing Pigeons, Columba livia: Potential for Migration Effects, Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 84(6), 677-681
Snodgras, R. G., Collier, A. C., Coon, A. E., Pritsos, C. 2010, Mitomycin C Inhibits Ribosomal RNA: A Novel Cytotoxic Mechanism for Bioreductive Drugs., Journal of Biological Chemistry, 285(25), 19068-19075
Goodrich, G. G., Goodman, P. H., Budhecha, S. K., Pritsos, C. 2009, Functional Polymorphism of detoxification gene NQO1 predicts intensity of empirical treatment of childhood asthma., Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, 674, Pages 55-61.
Pritsos, C., Pritsos, K. L., Spears, K. E. 2008, Smoking rates among gamblers at Nevada casinos mirror U.S. smoking rate., Tobacco Control/ BMJ, 17(2), 82-85.
Book or Chapter(s) in Books
Paz, M. M., Pritsos, C. 2012, The Molecular Toxicology of Mitomycin C., In James C. Fishbein (Ed.), Advances in Molecular Toxicology (vol. 6, pp. 243-299). Advances in Molecular Toxicology.
Bulletin/Reports
Moye, J. K., Pritsos, C. 2010, Effects of Chlorpyrifos and Aldicarb on Flight Activity and Related Cholinesterase Inhibition in Homing Pigeons Columba livia: Potential for Migration Effects., Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 84(6), 677-681